Accession Number : ADA470681

Title :   History and Basics of M&S1

Corporate Author : UNITED STATES ARMY INTELLIGENCE WASHINGTON DC BATTLE COMMAND SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTATION

Personal Author(s) : Little, Daniel

PDF Url : ADA470681

Report Date : 01 SEP 2006

Pagination or Media Count : 35

Abstract : Everything has a history. What few realize is that Modelling and Simulation or M&S predates the computer. Many of you are familiar with the concepts of chess. What makes chess significant? For one it represents rules. It also contains a strategy with infinite possibilities. While today most regard it as a commonplace game, strategic prowess was taken very seriously in the ancient world where reputations, not to mention kingdoms were won and lost to military campaigns. Figurine warriors replicating the art of battle have been dated as far back as 2500 BC in Egypt. As best as can be determined, these figurines offer us the earliest known example of formation and maneuver. The Chinese were no exception. Sun Tzu, Chinese strategist and military philosopher wrote about the game Wei Hei or encirclement around 500 BC. India circa 7OOAD added pieces, moves and strengths to Shataranja, the closest predecessor to the chess we play today. We fast forward to the 1600's to Germany where more military detail was added to a larger board and additional pieces. This larger board now sported rivers, forest and other terrain features. The enhanced version of war-gaming called Koenigspiel or the King's Game advanced a notion that war can be `reduced' to distinct concepts and formal rules. In 1824, Prussian Baron von Reisswitz published a book called Kriegspiel or wargame. Instead of a flat board, another revolutionary addition was made in the form of three-dimensional terrain. Dice decides the outcomes of fires, introducing both abstraction and quantification. While Koenigspiel fostered the concept of reductionism, Kriegspiel gave us in due time topographical maps and the stirrings of battle calculus. If the field of M&S can claim its rightful origin chronologically, it is the 1800s where the basic concepts of M&S as we recognize them become evident.

Descriptors :   *SIMULATION, *MODELS, *WAR GAMES, WARFARE, BATTLES, TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS, MANEUVERS, THEORY, HISTORY

Subject Categories : Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE