Accession Number : AD0666483

Title :   AFFIXAL DERIVATION, ZERO DERIVATION, AND SEMANTIC TRANSFORMATIONS,

Descriptive Note : Technical memo.,

Corporate Author : SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT CORP SANTA MONICA CALIF

Personal Author(s) : Revard,Carter C.

Report Date : 05 FEB 1968

Pagination or Media Count : 27

Abstract : Hans Marchand has shown that affixal and zero-derived denominal verbs in English, French and German share a few basic patterns of derivation. The present paper demonstrates that these patterns can be found in the definitions given in Webster's Seventh Collegiate Dictionary for noun-verbifying affixes (e.g., be-, en-, -ize, de-, -ate). Semantic components and syntactic structures discoverable in those definitions are collated and clarified to show that some denominal verbs have even greater derivational depth than Marchand's account supposes, and that there are subtypes within his types. The findings are then applied to study of multiple-sense denominal verbs (e.g., patronize), showing that each sense is uniquely derived by a particular derivational pathway from a particular sense of the underlying noun. A complication is that a derived verb-sense may undergo further diachronic shift (e.g., spot develops a sense 'detect or notice'). Analysis of such shifts gives a way to account for development of synonymic relations between previously unrelated lexical items. Brief reference is made to etymological sense-developments such as those observable between capsa and cash, showing that they proceed along derivational pathways identical to some studied for denominal verbs; some 'metaphoric' shifts are shown to follow closely similar and perhaps identical pathways. Thus, elucidations of shifts marked by derivational affixes has provided outlines of a set of 'semantic transformations' operative both diachronically and synchronically in English. (Author)

Descriptors :   (*TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMARS, SEMANTICS), (*VOCABULARY, *SEMANTICS), LINGUISTICS, SOURCES, ENGLISH LANGUAGE

Subject Categories : Linguistics

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE