Accession Number : AD0691142

Title :   A STUDY OF THE PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY OF VISION IN THE SOLDIER. 1. CHLOROQUINE AND HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE.

Descriptive Note : Technical rept.

Corporate Author : FEDERATION OF AMERICAN SOCIETIES FOR EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY BETHESDA MD LIFE SCIENCES RESEARCH OFFICE

Report Date : JUL 1969

Pagination or Media Count : 68

Abstract : A critical evaluation of reports on the toxic effects of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine on vision has revealed a relationship between the dosage and the hazards of these drugs for man. Chronic high doses, with a total dosage of 500 g or more administered over a period of months or years, may lead to ocular toxicity of a serious nature in some individuals. Relatively low total dosage of 100 g or less rarely results in visual pathology. The rish presented by intermediate dosage may be minimized by monitoring visual function at periodic intervals employing adequate tests to determine incipient injury. The detection of premaculopathy will permit the early cessation of drug therapy and reversal of pathologic changes in most patients. Prolonged antimalarial chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine in the recommended doses for the military over a period of two years includes a total dose of approximately 60 g. Research investigations on the biochemical transformation of melanin, and chloroquine binding to melanin in various tissues, revealed a possible explanation of the retinal toxicity of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. This phenomenon merits future study because reactions of this character appear to be closely associated with the oculocutaneous hyperpigmentation induced by a number of drugs. (Author)

Descriptors :   (*QUINOLINES, TOXICITY), (*ANTIMALARIALS, *TOXICITY), (*VISION, ANTIMALARIALS), PLASMODIUM, DISEASES, PATHOLOGY, CHEMOTHERAPY, EYE PIGMENTS, DOSAGE, CORNEA, EYE, RETINA, DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), DETOXIFICATION, PHARMACOLOGY

Subject Categories : Anatomy and Physiology
      Toxicology
      Pharmacology

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE