Accession Number : AD0708682

Title :   A PREDATOR-PREY RELATIONSHIP. SEA STARS-BIVALVES. THE CHEMICAL BASIS OF THE RESPONSE OF ASTERIAS VULGARIS TO CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA. A BIOASSAY, ITS APPLICATIONS AND THE PARTIAL PURIFICATION OF AN ACTIVE EXTRACT.

Descriptive Note : Technical rept.,

Corporate Author : WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION MASS

Personal Author(s) : Whittle,K. J. ; Blumer,M.

Report Date : MAY 1970

Pagination or Media Count : 80

Abstract : The chemical basis of the predator/prey relationship, sea stars/bivalves, was examined. Under controlled conditions in a flow-tank, Asterias vulgaris senses intact oysters (Crassostrea virginica) upstream at distances of at least 120 cm. and shows a positive chemotaxis. It responds similarly to aqueous extracts of oyster tissue at concentrations as low as a few parts per billion. The threshold sensitivity of Asterias vulgaris and Asterias forbesi for an oyster extract was compared. It was measured also for A. vulgaris relative to other bivalves. Contamination of the testing tank with particulate suspensions and oil dispersions at concentrations of less than 10 10 mg/liter is sufficient to decrease the response to oyster extract and to lower the threshold sensitivity of the sea stars. A reliable, repeatable method was developed for the partial purification of the oyster extract. Infrared spectroscopy indicates that the major functional groups are -OH, -NH and -COOH. It is probable that the activity is centered in a number of polar, low molecular weight compounds. They are heat stable at 100C, stable to acid, and not hydrolyzable. (Author)

Descriptors :   (*ECHINODERMATA, RESPONSE(BIOLOGY)), (*PELECYPODA, SECRETION), (*SECRETION, CHEMICAL ANALYSIS), CHEMICALS, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), PURIFICATION, ECOLOGY, WATER POLLUTION, OCEANS, PERCEPTION, THRESHOLDS(PHYSIOLOGY), SENSITIVITY, MARINE BIOLOGY, BIOASSAY

Subject Categories : Biological Oceanography
      Water Pollution and Control

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE