Accession Number : AD0711697

Title :   MACULOTOXIN, A POTENT TOXIN SECRETED BY OCTOPUS MACULOSUS HOYLE,

Corporate Author : DEFENCE STANDARDS LABS MARIBYRNONG (AUSTRALIA)

Personal Author(s) : Freeman,Shirley E. ; Turner,R. J.

Report Date : 02 JUL 1969

Pagination or Media Count : 11

Abstract : The posterior salivary (venom) glands of the blue-ringed octopus, Octopus (Hapalochlaena) maculosus Hoyle have been shown to contain a neurotoxin which is pharmacologically very similar to tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin. The toxin, which has been called 'maculotoxin,' causes hypotension, bradycardia, and respiratory paralysis in rabbits and rats. The hypotension can be temporarily reversed with l-epinephrine or l-norepinephrine. Evidence is presented which suggests that respiratory failure after intravenous injection is due to blockade of muscular nerve axons. The toxin blocks transmission in the sciatic nerve of the toad and the rat, and at low dose levels appears to have neuromuscular blocking activity. At higher dose levels the muscle membrane also becomes inexcitable. It is without significant effect on the acetylcholine-induced contraction of the chronically denervated rat diaphragm, the toad rectus abdominis, or the guinea pig ileum. Animals can be resuscitated after a marginal lethal dose by artificial ventilation alone, provided this is instituted before hypoxia becomes severe. (Author)

Descriptors :   (*TOXINS AND ANTITOXINS, *CEPHALOPODA), PHARMACOLOGY, NERVOUS SYSTEM, HYPOTENSION, RESPIRATORY SYSTEM, PARALYSIS, CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, TOXICITY, NERVES, NEUROMUSCULAR TRANSMISSION, MUSCLES, MEMBRANES(BIOLOGY), PHYSIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, LABORATORY ANIMALS

Subject Categories : Toxicology
      Pharmacology

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE