Accession Number : AD0718359

Title :   Electrical Properties of Ice.

Descriptive Note : Final rept. 16 Jul 62-31 Oct 70,

Corporate Author : NEW MEXICO INST OF MINING AND TECHNOLOGY SOCORRO

Personal Author(s) : Gross,Gerardo Wolfgang

Report Date : DEC 1970

Pagination or Media Count : 28

Abstract : An experimental and phenomenological study was made of the charge separation at the advancing surface of growing ice (Workman-Reynolds effect). The charge separation is fundamentally ascribed to anions and cations of an electrolyte solute crossing the phase boundary at different rates. The sign of the charge on the ice is determined by the preferentially incorporated ion constituent. The magnitude is determined by solute species, solute concentrations, and freezing rate. The process is very sensitive to hydrogen-ion concentration. Solutes widely present in meteoric waters, ammonium, bicarbonate, sodium, and chloride, give rise to large charge separations. Although the present results suggest that water free of impurities will not show appreciable charge separation upon freezing, this question, of paramount importance for an understanding of cloud processes, requires further investigation. (Author)

Descriptors :   (*ICE, ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES), (*CLOUDS, ICE), FREEZING, IMPURITIES, HALIDES, ALKALI METAL COMPOUNDS, ELECTROLYTES, AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS, FLUORIDES, PH FACTOR, CARBON DIOXIDE

Subject Categories : Atmospheric Physics
      Snow, Ice and Permafrost

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE