Accession Number : AD0824845

Title :   THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ARGON, HELIUM AND THE RARE GASES.

Descriptive Note : Technical rept. 1 Aug 66-31 Oct 67,

Corporate Author : UNION CARBIDE CORP TONAWANDA NY LINDE DIV

Personal Author(s) : Doebbler, G. F. ; Hamilton, R. W., Jr. ; Robinson, E. K.

Report Date : 31 OCT 1967

Pagination or Media Count : 116

Abstract : In this continuing study, (1) molecular mechanisms of inert gas effects of the cellular and subcellular level, and (2) responses of laboratory animals to compression and decompression are receiving primary attention. The activity of purified tyrosinase, acetylcholinesterase, alpha-chymotrypsin and other enzymes is inhibited with increasing effectiveness by AR > Kr > SF6 > Xe > N2O under pressure. Kinetic analyses of our reaction data indicate that allosteric modifications of protein structure by inert gases could be responsible for this inhibition. He, Ne, N2 and Ar at up to 102 atm. do not significantly inhibit enzyme action. Growth of human (HeLa) and mouse fibroblast (L929) cells is also inhibited by inert gases. The calculated linear dose response (% growth inhibition per atm.) for both cell types of monolayer culture is: He, Ne, N2, H2: 0.4; Ar: 1.1; Kr: 3.5; Xe: 17, N2O: 17.5 (HeLa) and 40.5 (L929). Levels of GOT, GPT, CPK, and LDH in the plasma rise in rats suffering severe decompression trauma. However, in mild cases of decompression sickness, only CPK and possibly LDH levels increase sufficiently to promise diagnostic potential. Gas exhange studies with He and Ar on rats showed that in certain types of dives safer and/or faster decompression should be possible by shifting, before ascent, to an inert gas with a blood:tissue solubility ratio greater than that of the bottom gas. Rats become anesthetized by N2 at 43 atm. Compression with He does not produce anesthesia but convulsions set in between 70 and 120 atm. (Author)

Descriptors :   *RARE GASES), (*RESPONSE(BIOLOGY), ARGON, HELIUM, RATS, NEON, KRYPTON, XENON, NITROGEN, HYDROGEN, ENZYME INHIBITORS, OXIDOREDUCTASES, ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE, CHYMOTRYPSIN, TISSUE CULTURE, DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS, ANESTHESIA, GROWTH(PHYSIOLOGY), PRESSURE, NITROGEN OXIDES, LACTATES, TISSUE CULTURE CELLS, PHYSIOLOGY, ANTIMETABOLITES.

Subject Categories : Biochemistry
      Anatomy and Physiology
      Pharmacology

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE