Accession Number : ADA114078

Title :   Coral Cratering Phenomenology.

Descriptive Note : Topical rept. 1 May 77-31 Oct 80,

Corporate Author : SYSTEMS SCIENCE AND SOFTWARE LA JOLLA CA

Personal Author(s) : LaFrenz,Robert l

PDF Url : ADA114078

Report Date : 31 Oct 1980

Pagination or Media Count : 70

Abstract : This report utilizes the results of Project Tugboat, a high-explosive, optimum depth-of-burial project done in coral overlaid with water to help explain the formation process of the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) nuclear surface burst craters. The craters produced during Project Tugboat were wide, flat, and saucer-shaped. The volume was approximately four times larger than contemplated in the design based upon continental experience, and apparently came entirely from crushing, compaction, and settling of the coral. Included are colored pictures from an aerial movie showing initially a conventional throw-out crater surrounded by a circular area of obviously crushed but still relatively intact coral. Pictures from later movie frames show the crushed coral beyond the ejecta crater collapsing and flowing into the deeper center ejecta crater. There was no ejecta material found above the original ocean bottom elevation, indicating that the entire final volume had to come from crushing, compaction, and consolidation of the in situ material.

Descriptors :   *NUCLEAR EXPLOSION SIMULATION, *Coral, *Cratering, *Craters, Harbors, Hawaii, Surface Burst, Porosity, Blast, Ground motion, Volume, Excavation, Ocean bottom, Crushing, Compacting, Ejecta, Underwater, Efficiency

Subject Categories : Physical and Dynamic Oceanography
      Explosions

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE