Accession Number : ADA180379

Title :   Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic). ATLANTIC MENHADEN,

Corporate Author : GEORGIA COOPERATIVE FISHERY AND WILDLIFE RESEARCH UNIT ATHENS

Personal Author(s) : Rogers,S. G. ; Van Den Avyle,Michael J.

Report Date : OCT 1983

Pagination or Media Count : 28

Abstract : Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, range, life history environmental requirements, and significance of coastal aquatic species. They are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. The Atlantic menhaden, Brevortia tyrannus, contributes 25% to 40% of the landings of the largest commercial fishery (by weight) in the United States. Landings for 1979-81 averaged about 400,000 mt (440,920 t) and $38 million annually. All ages are important prey for many fishes and birds; the species is a seasonally important and migratory component of estuarine and shelf fish assemblages. In the South Atlantic, major spawning occurs from December through February near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, in shelf waters that are 100-200 m (328-655 ft) deep. Larval Atlantic menhaden feed on zooplankton and move shoreward to estuaries after 1-3 months at sea. With growth, the juveniles gradually change to a less-selective, filter-feeding mode and generally migrate from estuaries to open shelf areas during late fall. Fish that exit estuaries everywhere along the Atlantic seaboard eventually disperse throughout the species' range. Atlantic menhaden occur in a broad range of temperatures and salinities. Larvae move toward low-salinity areas upon entering estuaries, and prejuveniles are dependent on low-salinity marsh habitats and river shoals for nurseries.

Descriptors :   *MARINE BIOLOGY, LIFE CYCLES, REPRODUCTION(PHYSIOLOGY), BIRDS, CAPE HATTERAS, COASTAL REGIONS, CONTINENTAL SHELVES, DOCUMENTS, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, ENVIRONMENTS, ESTUARIES, EXITS, FISHERIES, FISHES, HISTORY, INVERTEBRATES, LARVAE, LIFE(BIOLOGY), NORTH CAROLINA, PROFILES, REQUIREMENTS, RIVERS, SEA WATER, SHALLOW WATER, TEMPERATURE, UNITED STATES, ZOOPLANKTON

Subject Categories : Biology
      Biological Oceanography

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE