Accession Number : ADA180383

Title :   Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). ALEWIFE/BLUEBACK HERRING,

Corporate Author : VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INST AND STATE UNIV BLACKSBURG DEPT OF FISHERIES AND WILDLIFE SCIENCES

Personal Author(s) : Fay,Clemon W ; Neves,Richard J ; Pardue,Garland B

PDF Url : ADA180383

Report Date : Oct 1983

Pagination or Media Count : 34

Abstract : Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are prepared to assist in impact assessment. The alewife and blueback herring, Alosa pseudoharengus and Alosa aestivalis, are important species in estuarine and marine ecosystems as links between the zooplankton they consume and top piscivores. Both anadromous and land-locked populations exist. Spawning environments range from streams only a few centimeters deep to large rivers. Alewives will also spawn in ponds with an open connection to the sea. Blueback herring prefer spawning sites with fast currents and associated hard substrates, while alewives select a wider variety of sites, from standing water and oxbows to mid-river areas. Spawning occurs from April to July in the mid-Atlantic region; the onset and peak of alewife spawning precede those of blueback herring by 2 to 3 weeks. Larvae and juveniles remain in or near areas spawned before emigrating (as juveniles) to coastal areas between June and November of their first year. Adults overwinter offshore to depths of at least 110 m. Nantucket Shoals, Georges Bank, and the Gulf of Maine are important overwintering grounds. Commercial and limited recreational fisheries for these species occur; total U.S. landings in 1981 were 3,754 mt, while foreign landings were 13.9 mt. Some eggs can hatch at water temperatures between 7 and 29.5 C, but temperatures above 29.7 C are lethal temperature. Keywords: Fish; Growth(Physiology); Feeding; Salinity requirements.

Descriptors :   *FISHES, *MARINE BIOLOGY, ADULTS, ATLANTIC OCEAN, COASTAL REGIONS, CURRENTS, DEPTH, DOCUMENTS, ECOSYSTEMS, EGGS, ENVIRONMENTS, ESTUARIES, FISHERIES, FOREIGN, GULFS, HISTORY, INVERTEBRATES, LANDING, LARVAE, LIFE(BIOLOGY), LIMITATIONS, OFFSHORE, PHYSIOLOGY, PROFILES, RECREATION, REQUIREMENTS, RIVERS, SALINITY, SHALLOW WATER, SUBSTRATES, TAXONOMY, WATER, ZOOPLANKTON, LIFE CYCLES, REPRODUCTION(PHYSIOLOGY)

Subject Categories : Biology
      Biological Oceanography

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE