Accession Number : ADA180384

Title :   Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). ATLANTIC SILVERSIDE,

Corporate Author : VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INST AND STATE UNIV BLACKSBURG DEPT OF FISHERIES AND WILDLIFE SCIENCES

Personal Author(s) : Fay,Clemon W ; Neves,Richard J ; Pardue,Garland B

PDF Url : ADA180384

Report Date : Oct 1983

Pagination or Media Count : 24

Abstract : Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. The Atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia) is an important link in estuarine food webs as an opportunistic omnivore and as forage for large piscivores such as striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix). Many times the Atlantic silverside is the most abundant fish species encountered in estuaries and tributaries. They mature at age 1 and spawn in the intertidal zone of estuaries from March to June in the mid-Atlantic region. Few 2-year old fish are ever encountered, so the Atlantic silverside is basically a short-lived species. Most spawning occurs at high tide during new or full moon phases. Eggs are adhesive and are found attached to submerged vegetation. Larvae, juveniles, and adults generally inhabit similar areas. Sex is determined in larval development 32 to 46 days after hatching, and is a function of parental genotype and water temperature regime during the critical period. Fisheries for this species are not documented. Eggs can tolerate water temperatures between 15 and 30 C, and larvae need temperatures above 15C for survival. Larvae tolerate relatively acute temperature increases. Upper lethal temperatures for juveniles and adults range from 30.5 to 33.8 C, depending on acclimation temperature. Salinities of 20 ppt or lower significantly delay hatching and affect larval survival. Juveniles and adults tolerate the full range of naturally occuring salinities (i.e. freshwater to at least 37.8 ppt). Keywords: Growth(Physiology); Feeding.

Descriptors :   *FISHES, *MARINE BIOLOGY, ACCLIMATIZATION, ADULTS, ATLANTIC OCEAN, COASTAL REGIONS, DOCUMENTS, EGGS, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, ENVIRONMENTS, ESTUARIES, FISHERIES, FRESH WATER, HISTORY, INVERTEBRATES, LARVAE, LETHALITY, LIFE(BIOLOGY), MOON, PHASE, PROFILES, REQUIREMENTS, SEX, SHORT RANGE(TIME), STREAMS, SURVIVAL(GENERAL), TAXONOMY, TEMPERATURE, TIDES, UNDERWATER, VEGETATION, WATER, LIFE CYCLES, FOOD CHAINS, FEEDING, REPRODUCTION(PHYSIOLOGY)

Subject Categories : Biology
      Biological Oceanography

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE