Accession Number : ADA183925

Title :   Benchmark Design and Installation: A synthesis of Existing Information.

Descriptive Note : Special rept.,

Corporate Author : COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LAB HANOVER NH

Personal Author(s) : Gatto,Lawrence W

PDF Url : ADA183925

Report Date : Jul 1987

Pagination or Media Count : 79

Abstract : Techniques used for topographic, hydrographic, construction, boundary ,geodetic and structural movement surveys are only as accurate as the benchmarks used as reference. In northern areas, frost action can cause substantial vertical movement of benchmarks. Benchmarks may also subside or shift in wetlands and coastal areas. Various benchmark designs and installation procedures reduce or eliminate movement, but information on the designs and procedures is widely scattered and not available to Corps of Engineers Districts in one report. This report is a synthesis of information compiled from surveys of Corps of Engineers Districts and Divisions, U.S. and Canadian government agencies, private industry and a literature review. Matrices for selecting and installing benchmarks that meet third-order accuracy requirements or better and that are appropriate for various climatic and soil conditions were prepared from the synthesized information. Procedures to be followed while installing various types of benchmarks are included. (Author)

Descriptors :   *MARKERS, *SURVEYING(GEOGRAPHIC), FROST HEAVE, ACCURACY, ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS, CLIMATE, COASTAL REGIONS, INSTALLATION, LITERATURE SURVEYS, NORTH(DIRECTION), REQUIREMENTS, SOILS, STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES, SURVEYS, WETLANDS

Subject Categories : Soil Mechanics

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE