Accession Number : ADA188403

Title :   Implicit Knowledge in the Identification of Environmental Sounds: Causal Uncertainty and Stereotype.

Descriptive Note : Technical rept.,

Corporate Author : GEORGE MASON UNIV FAIRFAX VA DEPT OF PSYCHOLOGY

Personal Author(s) : Ballas, James A

PDF Url : ADA188403

Report Date : Oct 1987

Pagination or Media Count : 28

Abstract : Two aspects of listerner's implicit knowledge about environmental sound were investigated: multiple causality and stereotype. Several studies have demonstrated that the time required to identify an environmental is a function of the number of alternative causes, which defines causal uncertainty (CU). The procedure used to estimate causal uncertainty requires the collection and sorting of identification responses from a group of listeners. The number of unique responses is then used to calculate CU. Because the cognitive process implied by the role of CU assumes that listeners are informed about alternatives causes, it was hypothesized that they might be able to directly estimate the number of alternative causes. In the first experiment, listeners were asked to estimate the number of alternative causes for a sound. These estimates correlated significantly with previous estimates of CU and sound identification times obtained from different listeners. In a second experiment listeners were given anchors for the number of possible causes of the sounds based upon the estimates increased. These estimates correlated significantly with previous estimates of CU including estimates from the first experiment. Correlation of these estimates with identification time was significant but not different from the first experiment. Results from both experiments demonstrated the reliability of CU for specific sounds with changes in methods and listeners.

Descriptors :   *AUDITORY PERCEPTION, *PSYCHOACOUSTICS, COGNITION, ENVIRONMENTS, IDENTIFICATION, RELIABILITY, SOUND, TIME

Subject Categories : Acoustics
      Psychology

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE