Accession Number : ADA191290

Title :   Problem Definition Study on Techniques and Methodologies for Evaluating the Chemical and Toxicological Properties of Combustion Products of Gun Systems. Volume 1.

Descriptive Note : Final rept.,

Corporate Author : OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LAB TN

Personal Author(s) : Ross, Robert H ; Pal, Bimal C ; Ramsey, Roswitha S ; Jenkins, Roger A ; Lock, Simon

PDF Url : ADA191290

Report Date : Mar 1988

Pagination or Media Count : 294

Abstract : Emissions from rifles and large-caliber guns are a complex mixture of chemical species that have undergone only limited chemical characterization and toxicological investigation. The chemicals arise mainly as a result of the combustion process occurring during the firing of a round. All propellants are nitrocellulose based -- single-base propellants contain nitroglycerine; and triple-base propellants contain nitrocellulose, nitroguanidine, and nitroglycerin as the major ingredients. Available information indicates that the major decomposition products in gun exhaust are carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, water, and nitrogen, constituting approximately 99 percent by volume. A number of minor chemical species have been identified including ammonia, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, methane, inorganic particulates (lead, antimony, barium, copper, and zinc), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (of unknown origin). There is a specific lack of information on organic emissions in the vapor and particulate phases, including the contribution of classes to the total exhaust. A test environment where temperature, concentration, humidity, background, and other variables can be accurately controlled is needed. Emphasis should be placed on collecting gases from the breech compartment since these products will in all likelihood be the major source of exposure. The results of these investigations can then be correlated with results from field studies. Keywords: Sampling, Collecting method, Toxicology.

Descriptors :   *PROPELLANTS, *TOXICOLOGY, *NITROCELLULOSE, *COMBUSTION CHAMBER GASES, *COMBUSTION PRODUCTS, *ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, ANTIMONY, BREECH MECHANISMS, COMPARTMENTS, CARBON MONOXIDE, CHEMICALS, COLLECTING METHODS, AMMONIA, BARIUM, CARBON DIOXIDE, CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, COMBUSTION, EMISSION, GUNS, HYDROGEN, CALIBRATION, NITROGLYCERIN, PARTICULATES, RIFLES, DIOXIDES, SULFUR OXIDES, MIXTURES, DECOMPOSITION, NITROGUANIDINE, AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS, SAMPLING, ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS, GUN PROPELLANTS, EXHAUST GASES, NITROGEN OXIDES, COPPER, PHASE, HUMIDITY, METHANE, NITROGEN, SOURCES, WATER, ZINC, MULTIBASE PROPELLANTS

Subject Categories : Combustion and Ignition
      Ammunition and Explosives
      Toxicology
      Physical Chemistry

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE