Accession Number : ADA289106

Title :   LEO on the Cheap. Methods for Achieving Drastic Reductions in Space Launch Costs.

Descriptive Note : Research rept.,

Corporate Author : AIR UNIV MAXWELL AFB AL AIRPOWER RESEARCH INST

Personal Author(s) : London, John R., III

PDF Url : ADA289106

Report Date : OCT 1994

Pagination or Media Count : 233

Abstract : President Kennedy's call for a manned lunar landing within the decade galvanized our country for a massive and challenging undertaking. Neil Armstrong stepped onto the Moon a little more than eight years after the President's May 1961 speech before Congress-an accomplishment that stands as one of the great scientific, technical, and management achievements in human history. Viewed within the context of today's typical large aerospace programs, the rapidity of the Apollo Program's development is particularly impressive. Apollo succeeded despite the tragic January 1967 fire that prompted a major redesign of the manned capsule as well as significant personnel and management changes within NASA. As the 1960s drew to a close with the US basking in the limelight of its space successes, some space managers were already developing plans for space initiatives that would follow the Apollo Program. Despite the breathtaking success of Apollo, American public and Congressional opinion did not support funding large new space missions at the level and priority enjoyed by the manned lunar landing program. President Nixon's March 1970 statement reflected the sentiment within the US government at the time. The US needed a cheaper, simpler means of achieving access to space. The strong desire for economical space transportation may have been partially motivated by an image of wastefulness associated with the Apollo launch vehicle.

Descriptors :   *COST ANALYSIS, *REDUCTION, *SPACE SHUTTLES, *MANNED SPACECRAFT, SPACECRAFT, MANAGEMENT, ECONOMICS, EFFICIENCY, RESEARCH FACILITIES, TOWERS, TIME, COSTS, AEROSPACE SYSTEMS, PLANNING, MISSIONS, HISTORY, LAUNCHING, SATURN(PLANET), MACHINES, ENGINEERS, MANNED, LAUNCH VEHICLES, ROCKETS, PUBLIC OPINION, LUNAR EXPLORATION, LUNAR LANDINGS, LUNAR PROBES, MOON.

Subject Categories : Economics and Cost Analysis
      Manned Spacecraft

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE