Accession Number : ADA294927

Title :   Toxicology and Pharmacology of the Chemical Warfare Agent Sulfur Mustard - A Review.

Descriptive Note : Final technical rept. 29 Sep 94-31 Jan 95,

Corporate Author : GEO-CENTERS INC NEWTON CENTRE MA

Personal Author(s) : Dacre, Jack C. ; Beers, Richard ; Goldman, Max

PDF Url : ADA294927

Report Date : 05 APR 1995

Pagination or Media Count : 89

Abstract : Sulfur mustard is a poisonous chemical agent which exerts a local action on the eyes, skin and respiratory tissue with subsequent systemic action on the nervous, cardiac, and digestive and endocrine systems in man and laboratory animals causing lacrimation, malaise, anorexia, salivation, respiratory distress, vomiting, hyperexcitability, cardiac distress, and death. Sulfur mustard is a cell poison which causes disumption and impairment of a variety of cellular activities which are dependent upon a very specific integral relationship. These cytotoxic effects are manifested in widespread metabolic disturbances whose variable characteristics are observed in enzymatic deficiencies, vesicant action, abnormal mitotic activity and cell division, bone marrow disruption, disturbances in hematopoietic activity and systemic poisoning. Indeed, mustard gas readily combines with various components of the cell such as amino acids, amines and proteins. Sulfur mustard has been shown to be mainly a lung carcinogen in various test animal species; this effect is highly dependent of size of the dose and the route of exposure. In the human, there is evidence of cancers of the respiratory tract in men exposed to mustard gas. Mutagenicity of sulfur mustard, due to the strong alkylating activity, has been reported to occur in many different species of animals, plants, bacteria, and fungi. There is no strong evidence that sulfur mustard is a teratogen but much further research, with particular emphasis on maternal and fetal toxicity, is needed and recommended.

Descriptors :   *MUSTARD AGENTS, *SULFUR, *CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, *TOXICOLOGY, TEST AND EVALUATION, BACTERIA, TOXICITY, ENZYMES, PROTEINS, METABOLISM, GASES, AMINES, FUNGI, LUNG, RESPIRATORY SYSTEM, ALKYLATION, POISONING, ANIMALS, EYE, CELL DIVISION, CYTOTOXINS, CARCINOGENS, DEATH, PREGNANCY, POISONS, HEART, BONE MARROW, AMINO ACIDS, FEMALES, ABNORMALITIES, PHARMACOLOGY, CANCER, LABORATORY ANIMALS, HEMATOPOIESIS, ANOREXIA, DIGESTIVE SYSTEM, FETUS, ENDOCRINE GLANDS, MALAISE, MITOSIS.

Subject Categories : Toxicology
      Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE