Accession Number : ADA299287

Title :   Errors in Skilled Performance.

Descriptive Note : Final rept. 1 Jan 93-30 Jun 95,

Corporate Author : UTAH UNIV SALT LAKE CITY

Personal Author(s) : Woltz, Dan J. ; Gardner, Michael K.

PDF Url : ADA299287

Report Date : 31 AUG 1995

Pagination or Media Count : 39

Abstract : First, we discuss Anderson's (1983) ACT theory as the basis of our work on skilled performance errors. Second, we outline conditions we believe promote errors -- long-term priming (training on only a subset of possible problem solution types), short-term priming (presenting multiple surface structure instantiations of a single, deep structure problem type in succession), and working memory load (presenting a concurrent secondary task requiring working memory capacity). Third, we describe our methodology for "detecting" undetected errors. Fourth, we present our empirical work. Twelve studies are presented on long-term priming. These found general support for the existence of two memory mechanisms, composition and proceduralization, and their respective roles in skilled performance errors. Five studies are presented on short-term priming. These found no support for short-term priming as a process underlying errors, despite its popularity among theorists. One study is presented on working memory which found an increase in latency, but not error rate, due to load (a surprising finding). Finally, two studies investigated individual differences variables related to undetected errors. Self-report questionnaires of error proneness did not correlate with performance errors, but working memory capacity, as measured in performance tests did. Directions for future research are discussed. (AN)

Descriptors :   *PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), *COGNITION, *MEMORY(PSYCHOLOGY), *ERRORS, DECISION MAKING, SKILLS, PERFORMANCE TESTS, STRESS(PSYCHOLOGY), LONG RANGE(TIME), PROBLEM SOLVING, SHORT RANGE(TIME), STIMULI, JUDGEMENT(PSYCHOLOGY), LEARNING, MENTAL ABILITY, REACTION(PSYCHOLOGY).

Subject Categories : Psychology

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE