Accession Number : ADA299537

Title :   The Winter Low-Flow Balance of the Semiarid White River, Nebraska and South Dakota,

Corporate Author : COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LAB HANOVER NH

Personal Author(s) : Ferrick, Michael G. ; Mulherin, Nathan D. ; Calkins, Darryl J.

PDF Url : ADA299537

Report Date : JUL 1995

Pagination or Media Count : 31

Abstract : Low-flow studies ore needed to quantify the effects of water consumption on stream flow, water quality, groundwater resources, and contaminant transport. The low-flow water balance of a river in a cold region is simplified in winter because evapotranspiration is negligible, irrigation water withdrawals and diversions are halted, and precipitation occurs largely as snow, minimizing the spatial arid temporal variability of runoff. We investigated the monthly low-flow water balance of White River (Neb. and S. Dak.) reaches over seven consecutive winters. Water going into or out of storage as ice or melt, obtained with an air temperature index model, can be a dominant component of the water balance. The point estimate method is used to account for parameter uncertainty and variability, providing the mean, variance, and limits of dependent variables such as water storage as ice and inflow from a subbasin. Negative surface water yield from several-thousand-square-kilometer subbasins occurred regularly through the period, indicating a significant flow from the river to the alluvial aquifers. The winter water balance results suggest either a perched river or a coupled surface water-groundwater hydrologic system in particular subbasins, consistent with the field investigations of Rothrock (1942). The winter flow exchange between The surface and subsurface can be used to estimate the annual exchange for both hydrologic conditions.

Descriptors :   *GROUND WATER, *RIVERS, *CHANNEL FLOW, PERMEABILITY, ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE, FIELD TESTS, ICE FORMATION, ALLUVIUM, HYDROLOGY, AQUIFERS, SOILS, SNOW, WINTER, FLOW RATE, TRANSPORT, BALANCE, CONTAMINANTS, CONSUMPTION, STORAGE, EVAPOTRANSPIRATION, WATER QUALITY, WATER RESOURCES, STANDARD DEVIATION, BASINS(GEOGRAPHIC), RUNOFF, STREAMS, STREAMFLOW ANALYSIS, SOUTH DAKOTA, FLOOD PLAINS, IRRIGATION SYSTEMS, NEBRASKA.

Subject Categories : Hydrology, Limnology and Potamology
      Snow, Ice and Permafrost

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE