Accession Number : ADA300470

Title :   Acute and Repeated Dose Inhalation Toxicity Effects of Pyrotechnically Disseminated Terephthalic Acid Smoke (XM83 Grenade)

Descriptive Note : Final rept. Mar 93-Jan 94,

Corporate Author : EDGEWOOD RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD

Personal Author(s) : Muse, William T., Jr. ; Anthony, J. S. ; Bergmann, Jeffrey D. ; Burnett, David C. ; Crouse, Charles L.

PDF Url : ADA300470

Report Date : SEP 1995

Pagination or Media Count : 28

Abstract : The XM83 grenade, containing terephthalic acid (TPA) is the training smoke to replace the U.S Army's hexachioroethane (HC) smoke grenade. Inhalation studies (acute and repeated dose) were conducted to assess the health hazard potential of pyrotechnically generated TPA and its combustion products. Acute exposure levels ranged from 1 50 - 1 900 mglm3 for 30 min; repeated dose exposures ranged from 1 28 - 1 ,965 mg/m3 for 30 min/day for 5 days. Exposed and control Fisher 344 rats were evaluated for toxic signs, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), cellular chemiluminescence (CL), and histopathologic changes. During exposure, rats exhibited slight to moderate lacrimation, rhinorrhea, lethargy, and dyspnea, which reversed within 1 -hr post- exposure. No deaths occurred, even at highest smoke concentrations. Other than a temporary increase in white blood cell count, all BAL and CL parameters were within normal limits. Histopathological changes were confined to dose-related nasal necrosis and inflammation in both the acute and repeated dose exposures at levels above 900 mg/m3. The main pyrotechnic combustion products formed were formaldehyde, benzene, and carbon monoxide. These by- products were above their respective threshold limit values at various dose levels but should not be of toxicological concern if the smoke is deployed in an open area. Overall, TPA is a safer training smoke than HC.

Descriptors :   *TOXICITY, *SMOKE MUNITIONS, *PHTHALIC ACIDS, PROPAGATION, BENZENE, HAZARDS, EXPOSURE(GENERAL), TRAINING, HEALTH, THRESHOLD EFFECTS, SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS, LIMITATIONS, DOSAGE, CONCENTRATION(COMPOSITION), LEVEL(QUANTITY), CARBON MONOXIDE, INFLAMMATION, LEUKOCYTES, FORMALDEHYDE, BLOOD COUNTS, HISTOPATHOLOGY, PYROTECHNICS, INHALATION, CHEMILUMINESCENCE, COMBUSTION PRODUCTS, DYSPNEA.

Subject Categories : Toxicology
      Pyrotechnics

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE