Accession Number : ADA304314

Title :   An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Volume 5.

Descriptive Note : Rept. for May 92-May 95,

Corporate Author : SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORP MCLEAN VA

Personal Author(s) : Grubbe, William D. ; Wolfe, William H. ; Michalek, Joe E. ; Williams, David E. ; Lustik, Michael B.

PDF Url : ADA304314

Report Date : 02 MAY 1995

Pagination or Media Count : 502

Abstract : In humans, there is no evidence that the kidneys are target organs for 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, or dioxin) toxicity. Although renal excretion of phenoxy herbicides (TCDD and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid 2,4,5-1) has been well established in animals (1) and humans (2,3), more recent studies indicate that it may be of secondary importance to intestinal elimination (4,5). Several studies have focused on the renal sequelae of chlorophenol toxicity in laboratory animals. Rats exposed to dichiorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) by cutaneous application were noted to have an increase in renal weight but no histologic changes despite the development of a wasting syndrome (6). In contrast, in a study of TCDD toxicity in guinea pigs, a decrease in kidney weight was noted relative to controls, and histopathologic examination revealed focal nimeralization changes in the renal parenchyma (7). Renal anomalies including hydronephrosis in mice (8-10) and hamsters (11) occurred after maternal TCDD exposure at toxic levels. In one study, these effects were limited to an aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-responsive strain (10). Because the doses of phenoxy herbicides used in these experiments were extreme by any measure of reported human exposure and because routes of administrations were not comparable, the relevance of these and other animal studies to dioxin toxicity in humans is not established. Renal and urinary tract disease have received relatively linle emphasis in morbidity studies of humans exposed to phenoxy herbicides, although an isolated case of hemorrhagic cystitis occurred in a child exposed to high concentrations of TCDD in soil (12). Acute renal failure also has been reported in cases of extreme phenoxy herbicide (though not TCDD) toxicity in man, though the mechanism appears to be secondary to rhabdomyolysis rather than to a direct nephrotoxic ef

Descriptors :   *HEALTH, *TOXICITY, *AIR FORCE PERSONNEL, *EXPOSURE(PHYSIOLOGY), *HERBICIDES, *DIOXINS, CONTROL, ANOMALIES, HIGH RATE, EXPOSURE(GENERAL), RATS, HUMANS, FAILURE, ISOLATION, DISEASES, TARGETS, HYDROCARBONS, WEIGHT, DOSAGE, CONCENTRATION(COMPOSITION), LEVEL(QUANTITY), ARYL RADICALS, ANIMALS, HUMAN BODY, PATHOLOGY, MICE, ELIMINATION, PHENOLS, INTESTINES, EPIDEMIOLOGY, HAMSTERS, HISTOLOGY, ORGANS(ANATOMY), LABORATORY ANIMALS, KIDNEYS, MORBIDITY, GUINEA PIGS, SKIN DISEASES, EXCRETION, URINARY SYSTEM.

Subject Categories : Medicine and Medical Research
      Toxicology

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE