Accession Number : ADA306936

Title :   Attenuation of Phosgene Toxicity.

Descriptive Note : Final rept. 30 Nov 92-30 Sep 95,

Corporate Author : DUKE UNIV MEDICAL CENTER DURHAM NC

Personal Author(s) : Currie, William D.

PDF Url : ADA306936

Report Date : OCT 1995

Pagination or Media Count : 94

Abstract : Certain inhaled toxins, e.g., phosgene and other oxidant gases, can trigger a debilitating and usually fatal form of respiratory distress. Presently, there is no antidote for such lung-damaging agents. We have completed a comprehensive examination of surfactant replacement therapy (SRT) as a counter-measure against these agents which damage the pulmonary surfactant system of the alveolar and respiratory bronchiolar airways. Exogenous pulmonary surfactant was administered either by intratracheal instillation or by aerosol to male Sprague-Dawley rats that had been exposed to 40.5 ppm phosgene gas for 10 minutes in a Cannon type (nose-only) chamber (the LCt50, 24-hour) in order to assess treatment effects on tissue edema, lung function and survival. Phosgene exposure was found to have an adverse effect on the surface activity of the endogenous pulmonary surfactant system in these exposed rats. Surfactant replacement helped to restore this activity. SRT did not prevent massive outpouring of edema water which marks the clinical phase of phosgene poisoning, nor did it alleviate the attending decline in lung function. Nonetheless, SRT was found to significantly reduce mortality from exposure to the toxin. Our findings suggest that SRT may be the first effective countermeasure for US military personnel following lethal phosgene exposure.

Descriptors :   *TOXICITY, *GASES, *OXIDIZERS, *PHOSGENE, *RESPIRATORY SYSTEM, *TOXINS AND ANTITOXINS, FUNCTIONS, TISSUES(BIOLOGY), AEROSOLS, EXPOSURE(GENERAL), RATS, WATER, CLINICAL MEDICINE, SURVIVAL(GENERAL), ADVERSE CONDITIONS, ANTIDOTES, ATTENUATION, LUNG, REPLACEMENT, SURFACE ACTIVE SUBSTANCES, SURFACE REACTIONS, THERAPY, POISONING, MALES, GUNS, EDEMA.

Subject Categories : Biochemistry
      Medicine and Medical Research
      Toxicology

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE