Accession Number : ADA307184

Title :   Transport Water Impact and Ditching Performance.

Descriptive Note : Final rept.,

Corporate Author : GALAXY SCIENTIFIC CORP PLEASANTVILLE NJ

Personal Author(s) : Patel, Amit A. ; Greenwood, Richard P., Jr

PDF Url : ADA307184

Report Date : MAR 1996

Pagination or Media Count : 69

Abstract : The objective of this program was to (1) review and analyze worldwide transport accident data relative to water impacts and ditching performance, (2) compare the results of this study with current FAA requirements to determine their adequacy/relevancy, and (3) conduct a survey of major worldwide airports to determine their proximity to water. The data were analyzed with respect to the airplanes' structural integrity, breakup patterns, subsystem performance, cabin integrity, and airline procedures that were or could be contributors to injuries and fatalities. A summary of the relevant FAR's was presented to provide background for analysis of the accident data. The methods by which airframe manufacturers may certify their aircrafts' ditching behavior were presented. Because of the infrequency of unplanned water contacts and ditching (planned) occurrences, a case study approach was taken in analyzing the accident data. Eleven worldwide water impact accidents were identified between the years 1959 and 1979. Of these, only one was classified as a ditching occurrence. For the years 1980 to the present, three U.S. water related occurrences were identified with no ditching occurrences. In deep water accidents, it was found that when the flight crew had at least some degree of preparedness, trauma-caused injuries were minimized while the majority of fatalities resulted from drowning. When the impact was unexpected, however, the forces on the airplane were generally much higher, resulting in a higher proportion of injuries and fatalities caused by trauma. In shallow water incidents, usually occurring as a result of runway overruns, drowning was not as common.

Descriptors :   *WATER, *AVIATION ACCIDENTS, *TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, *AIRCRAFT CABINS, *DITCHING, GLOBAL, AIRCRAFT, MANUFACTURING, IMPACT, FLIGHT CREWS, COMMERCIAL AVIATION, SHALLOW WATER, CASE STUDIES, SURVEYS, TRANSPORT, AIRFRAMES, CASUALTIES, BEHAVIOR, DEATH, AIRPORTS, RUNWAYS, DEEP WATER, TRAUMA, ACCIDENTS, DROWNING.

Subject Categories : Helicopters
      Military Aircraft Operations

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE