Accession Number : ADA309088

Title :   Energetics of Late Chemical Reactions in Nonideal Underwater Detonations: Phase 1, Preliminary Theoretical Model Development.

Descriptive Note : Final rept. 1 Apr-30 Sep 95,

Corporate Author : ENIG ASSOCIATES INC SILVER SPRING MD

Personal Author(s) : Cowperthwaite, Michael ; Pastine, D. J. ; Enig, Julius W.

PDF Url : ADA309088

Report Date : OCT 1995

Pagination or Media Count : 75

Abstract : This report describes a preliminary model of kinetic and thermo-hydrodynamic processes that define the nonideal detonation of a totally nonideal explosive: an AP/Al mixture. Section 2 presents a thermo-hydrodynamic description of reactive explosive compositions containing aluminum and, in particular, a description of the nonideal detonation process in ammonium perchlorate/aluminum and CHNO explosive/Al compositions. The specific energy relationships for these reacting compositions were formulated with each component governed by its own equations of state. Mie-Gruneisen equations of state are derived, including the temperature, and used for the solid components, but the detonation products are treated as a polytropic fluid. Equations of state for steady-state detonation in AP and the prototype model for nonideal detonation in CHNO/Al composition are also presented. In Section 3 we present a theory describing the kinetic processes by which Al/Al2O3/AP products react. Key here is the application of the phenomenon of anomalously high ionic conduction, which are exhibited by the beta-aluminas, through 'tunnels' through which cations can move freely. This provides a plausible explanation of events in Al/explosive reactions. Statistical mechanical concepts are employed to provide reaction rate equations for Al and AP. The theoretical results of Sections 2 and 3 provides a preliminary physical model based on first principles, which will be integrated into a compressible flow code in the next phase of this work, which is to improve, extend, and validate the model.

Descriptors :   *ALUMINUM, *CHEMICAL REACTIONS, *ENERGETIC PROPERTIES, *UNDERWATER EXPLOSIONS, *DETONATIONS, *AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE, STEADY STATE, CATIONS, MODELS, REACTION KINETICS, PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, THERMODYNAMICS, REACTION TIME, ENERGY, EXPLOSIONS, REACTIVITIES, SOLIDS, EXPLOSIVES, CODING, COMPRESSIBLE FLOW, KINETICS, STATISTICAL MECHANICS, COMPOSITION(PROPERTY), HYDRODYNAMICS, EQUATIONS OF STATE, IONIC CURRENT, COMBUSTION PRODUCTS.

Subject Categories : Inorganic Chemistry
      Physical Chemistry
      Marine Engineering
      Ammunition and Explosives

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE