Accession Number : ADA309385

Title :   Tutoring: Guided Learning by Doing.

Descriptive Note : Final rept. Aug 92-Mar 94,

Corporate Author : NORTHWESTERN UNIV EVANSTON IL

Personal Author(s) : Merrill, Douglas C. ; Reiser, Brian J. ; Merrill, Shannon K. ; Landes, Shari

PDF Url : ADA309385

Report Date : JAN 1996

Pagination or Media Count : 108

Abstract : Individualized instruction significantly improves students' pedagogical and motivated outcomes. In this paper, we seek to characterize tutorial behaviors that could lead to these benefits and consider why these actions should be pedagogically useful. This experiment examined students learning LISP programming with the assistance of a tutor. Tutoring sessions we audiotaped, allowing us to analyze every verbal utterance during the sessions and thereby identify the conversational events that led to pedagogical success. This discourse analysis suggests that tutors are successful because they take a very active role in leading the problem solving by offering confirmatory feedback additional guidance while students are on profitable paths and error feedback after mistakes. However, tutor carefully structure their feedback to allow students to perform as much of the work as possible while ensuring that problem solving stays on track These results suggest the types of strategies tutors employ to facilitate guided learning by doing.

Descriptors :   *PROBLEM SOLVING, *INDIVIDUALIZED TRAINING, *CONDITIONING(LEARNING), STUDENTS, ATTITUDES(PSYCHOLOGY), PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), REASONING, COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, TEACHING METHODS, FEEDBACK, MOTIVATION, INSTRUCTIONS, PERCEPTION(PSYCHOLOGY), INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, INTELLIGENCE(HUMANS), REACTION(PSYCHOLOGY), VERBAL BEHAVIOR, ROLES(BEHAVIOR), FRUSTRATION, TRANSFER OF TRAINING.

Subject Categories : Psychology

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE