Accession Number : ADA309690

Title :   OOTW, Raids and Tactical Surprise.

Descriptive Note : Monograph rept.,

Corporate Author : ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MIL ITARY STUDIES

Personal Author(s) : Megill, Todd A.

PDF Url : ADA309690

Report Date : 14 DEC 1995

Pagination or Media Count : 58

Abstract : This monograph examines the concept of tactical surprise and its use by raiding forces in Operations Other than War (OOTW). It discusses the nature of the OOTW environment and its relationship to the creation of tactical surprise. Surprise is defined, in its moral and physical/material aspects, as seeking to shift the balance of combat power and allow forces to achieve success out of proportion to their actual size. The difficulties of creating surprise during raids are examined in operations conducted in Panama and Somalia. This monograph first examines the OOTW environment and attempts to describe and characterize it in terms of limiting raiding forces ability to create surprise. The first operation was during the invasion of Panama. The raids were carried out to degrade the effectiveness of the Panamanian Defense Forces (PDF) by isolating and capturing the dictator of Panama, Manual Noriega. The raiding forces succeeded in creating tactical surprise, paralyzing PDF leadership, and forcing Noriega into hiding. The second operation was a series of raids conducted to capture General Aideed, a tribal warlord who was violently opposing the UN's efforts to reestablish a national government in Somalia. The raiding force was unable to create surprise and suffered a serious counterattack. The resulting casualties led to a complete change in American foreign policy and the eventual withdrawal of US support for the UN mission. The success or failure of raids in the OOTW environment will always be linked to the ability of the raiding forces to generate surprise. Deception and OPSEC operations create the potential for moral surprise and high tempo operations work to produce material surprise. Raids can be successfully conducted in the OOTW environment but will always be balanced on the razor's edge between success and failure.

Descriptors :   *COMBAT EFFECTIVENESS, *TACTICAL WARFARE, *DECEPTION, *RAIDS, FOREIGN POLICY, WARFARE, UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, LEADERSHIP, MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), MILITARY DOCTRINE, CASUALTIES, ETHICS, SOMALIA, LINKAGES, HOMING, BALANCE OF POWER, PANAMA.

Subject Categories : Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE