Accession Number : ADA309830

Title :   Unit Cohesion and Morale in Combat: Survival in a Culturally and Racially Heterogeneous Environment.

Descriptive Note : Monograph,

Corporate Author : ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MIL ITARY STUDIES

Personal Author(s) : Cox, Alexander A.

PDF Url : ADA309830

Report Date : 14 DEC 1995

Pagination or Media Count : 68

Abstract : This monograph explores the role of cohesion and morale on unit effectiveness in a culturally and racially heterogeneous environment, whether these elements can be nurtured and maintained within this environment, and what the means are for doing this. The method used for this research is a comparative, historical analysis of three cases of military units that maintained high levels of morale and strong unit cohesion. The units selected for the study were the 442d Regimental Combat Team (Japanese American unit during World War II), the U.S. Marine Corps (in Vietnam), and the Waffen SS (WW II). The monograph first defines morale and cohesion using the writings of military theorists (Sun Tzu, Jomini, and Clausewitz), research conducted by the Army Research Institute, reports compiled by clinical psychologists from the Army Medical Department (AMEDD), Department of Defense studies, work done by researchers from the Navy and Army War Colleges, and lastly writings of common soldiers. Once morale and cohesion were defined, they and their traits or characteristics were applied to the three case studies. The outcome of the comparative analysis lead to the conclusion that all three cases had certain traits in common. These were the warrior spirit (and esprit de corps), unit loyalty and pride, a common shared purpose and goal, trust in each other and their leaders, self-less service, and self-sacrifice. The intangible entity that bonds men together and motivates them to push themselves to the last ounce of their strength or ability was evident throughout the cases. The monograph concludes with lessons learned. In all three cases, the same forces are happening.

Descriptors :   *MILITARY FORCES(UNITED STATES), *CROSS CULTURE(SOCIOLOGY), *MORALE, *SURVIVAL(GENERAL), *HETEROGENEITY, *COHESION, *RACE RELATIONS, MILITARY HISTORY, WARFARE, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, LESSONS LEARNED, ARMY RESEARCH, ATTITUDES(PSYCHOLOGY), COMPARISON, CASE STUDIES, SHARING, MILITARY MEDICINE, NAVAL RESEARCH, MOTIVATION, MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS, PSYCHOLOGISTS, MILITARY ART.

Subject Categories : Sociology and Law
      Psychology
      Military Forces and Organizations

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE