Accession Number : ADA309848

Title :   Aviation Accident Forensic Assessment: Comprehensive Single-Extraction Urine Screening Procedure.

Descriptive Note : Final rept.,

Corporate Author : FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION WASHINGTON DC OFFICE OF AVIATION MEDICINE

Personal Author(s) : Canfield, Dennis ; White, Vicky ; Soper, John ; Kupiec, Tom

PDF Url : ADA309848

Report Date : MAY 1996

Pagination or Media Count : 12

Abstract : One of the missions of the Civil Aeromedical Institute (CAM I), Office of Aviation Medicine (OAM), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), is to help assess the role of potential medical or drug related pilot impairment in aviation accidents. This requires the ability to identify' a wide range of drugs and the medical conditions for which these drugs are prescribed. A single extraction screening procedure was developed to identify as many drugs as possible in urine, with minimal effort and cost. Triamterene, a diuretic, is easily identified using HPLC and TLC, whereas it can not be easily identified using standard CC Mass Spectroscopy. On the other hand, atenolol is easily identified using HPLC and Mass Spectroscopy, but is not detected using TLC at therapeutic levels. Methadone is difficult to detect using HPLC with a photo diode array and fluorescence detector, but can easily be detected using TLC and confirmed by mass spectroscopy. Urine specimens are hydrolyzed using Bglucuronidase, and the specimen is then extracted using commercially purchased TOXI-LAB extraction tubes. After removing the TOXI-LAB organic phase, the remaining aqueous layer is washed with chloroform. The organic phase and the chloroform wash are combined, evaporated to dryness, and then reconstituted in 5OuL of a methanol solution. A 10uL quantity of the methanol solution is then chromatographed, using HPLC with a photo diode array and fluorescence detector. The methanol solution is next analyzed using either TOXI-LAB or CC Mass Spectroscopy, depending on the compound detected using HPLC. When HPLC is negative, the extract is analyzed using the TOM-LAB% procedure. This method has proven successful in the identification of benzodiazepines (alpraxolam, temaxepam, diarepam, nordistepam, and oxarepam), cardiovascular medications, antihistamines, and other drugs that could have been missed using o

Descriptors :   *AVIATION ACCIDENTS, *DRUGS, *URINE, *TOXICOLOGY, *AVIATION MEDICINE, FLUORESCENCE, WATER, ARRAYS, MASS SPECTROSCOPY, AERONAUTICS, MEDICINE, METHANOLS, LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY, MISSIONS, THERAPY, EXTRACTION, RANGE(EXTREMES), PHOTODIODES, COCAINE, SCREENS(DISPLAYS), LITIGATION, DRUG ABUSE, CHLOROFORM, CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, AMPHETAMINES, ANTIHISTAMINICS, DIURETICS.

Subject Categories : Toxicology
      Pharmacology
      Military Aircraft Operations

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE