Accession Number : ADA310926

Title :   Peacetime Foreign Data Manipulation as One Aspect of Offensive Information Warfare: Questions of Legality under the United Nations Charter Article 2(4).

Descriptive Note : Final rept.,

Corporate Author : NAVAL WAR COLL NEWPORT RI ADVANCED RESEARCH PROGRAM

Personal Author(s) : Bond, James N.

PDF Url : ADA310926

Report Date : 14 JUN 1996

Pagination or Media Count : 110

Abstract : Paper discusses the issue of whether manipulation of a foreign state's data may be considered to be the use of force against that country in violation of Article 2(4) of the U.N. Charter. The paper first reviews the different methods of interpreting treaties such as the U.N. Charter, then examines briefly whether Article 2(4) is still a valid norm under international law. The paper concludes that in certain circumstances data manipulation could be the use of force, but is more likely to be considered an intervention in the internal affairs of the foreign state than the use of force.

Descriptors :   *ELECTRONIC WARFARE, *DATA MANAGEMENT, *GOVERNMENT(FOREIGN), *INTERNATIONAL LAW, FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY, PEACETIME, INTERNAL, TREATIES, UNITED NATIONS, COERCIVE FORCE.

Subject Categories : Government and Political Science
      Military Intelligence
      Countermeasures

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE