Accession Number : ADA311119

Title :   Lithium Batteries: Present Trends and Prospects.

Descriptive Note : Technical rept. Jun 95-Apr 96,

Corporate Author : ARMY RESEARCH LAB FORT MONMOUTH NJ

Personal Author(s) : Salomon, Mark

PDF Url : ADA311119

Report Date : MAY 1996

Pagination or Media Count : 36

Abstract : This review discusses the objectives for both commercial and military batteries, the various options available for several types of lithium batteries, and the specific problems associated with each of the battery components (anode, cathode and electrolyte). While metallic lithium is the most desirable anode material for achieving very high energy densities, safety concerns have resulted in the development of new chemistries involving lithium-intercalating anode materials such as carbon and graphite which form the stable intercalate LiC6. For cathode materials, research on the use of electrodes of the second kind (e.g. metal halides) has essentially been abandoned in favor of lithium-intercalating materials such as the transition metal oxides. Present day research is focusing upon the three oxides LiCoO2, NiCoO2 and LiMn2O4. While the cobalt oxide presently appears to be the superior material and the nickel oxide is second to cobalt oxide, both environmental and economic factors are the bases for attempts to develop alternative cathode materials. These concerns are the driving forces for world-wide efforts to improve the electrochemical characteristics of the less energetic manganese oxides. The third area of concern is that of the electrolyte. The three major problems associated with liquid electrolytes which are discussed in detail are reactivity with the anode, reactivity with the cathode, and low conductivity.

Descriptors :   *LITHIUM BATTERIES, METALS, ENVIRONMENTS, ECONOMICS, CONDUCTIVITY, LIQUIDS, MATERIALS, MILITARY EQUIPMENT, REACTIVITIES, MANGANESE OXIDES, ELECTROCHEMISTRY, GRAPHITE, CARBON, HIGH ENERGY, LITHIUM, CHEMISTRY, CATHODES, OXIDES, ELECTRODES, HIGH DENSITY, HALIDES, STORAGE BATTERIES, COMMERCIAL EQUIPMENT, DAY, ELECTROLYTES, TRANSITION METAL COMPOUNDS, ENERGETIC PROPERTIES, BATTERY COMPONENTS, METAL COMPOUNDS, ANODES, ELECTRIC BATTERIES, NICKEL COMPOUNDS, COBALT OXIDES.

Subject Categories : Electrochemical Energy Storage
      Inorganic Chemistry
      Physical Chemistry
      Logistics, Military Facilities and Supplies

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE