Accession Number : ADA311390

Title :   Load Carriage Using Packs: A Review of Physiological, Biomechanical and Medical Aspects,

Corporate Author : ARMY RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD

Personal Author(s) : Knapik, Joseph ; Harman, Everett ; Reynolds, Katy

Report Date : 1996

Pagination or Media Count : 12

Abstract : This paper reviews the. biomedical aspects of transporting loads in packs and offers suggestions for improving load-carriage capability. Locating the load mass as close as possible to the body center of gravity appears to result in the lowest energy cost when carrying a pack. Thus, the double pack (half the load on the front of the body and half the load on the back) has a lower energy cost than the backpack. However, backpacks provide greater versatility in most situations. The energy cost of walking with backpack loads increases progressively with increases in load mass, body mass, walking speed or grade; type of terrain also influences energy cost. Predictive equations have been developed for estimating the energy cost of carrying loads during locomotion but these may not be accurate for prolonged (>2 h) or downhill carriage. Training with loads can result in greater energy efficiency since walking with backpack loads over several weeks decreases energy cost.

Descriptors :   *LOAD DISTRIBUTION, *PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), *PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS, *PHYSICAL FITNESS, *BACKPACKS, VELOCITY, CENTER OF GRAVITY, LOW COSTS, MASS, LOADS(FORCES), WALKING, ENERGY, EFFICIENCY, TERRAIN, COSTS, LOW ENERGY, RESPONSE(BIOLOGY), MEDICAL SERVICES, BIOMECHANICS, BIODYNAMICS, EXERCISE(PHYSIOLOGY), ELECTROMYOGRAPHY, LOCOMOTION.

Subject Categories : Anatomy and Physiology
      Medicine and Medical Research
      Stress Physiology

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE