Accession Number : ADA318015
Title : Assessment of Sampling Error Associated with Collection and Analysis of Soil Samples at Explosives-Contaminated Sites.
Descriptive Note : Special rept.,
Corporate Author : COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LAB HANOVER NH
Personal Author(s) : Jenkins, Thomas F. ; Grant, Clarence L. ; Brar, Gurdarshan S. ; Thorne, Philip G. ; Ranney, Thomas A.
PDF Url : ADA318015
Report Date : SEP 1996
Pagination or Media Count : 45
Abstract : This study is an assessment of short-range heterogeneity in contaminant concentrations within surface soils at explosives-contaminated sites. Intensive sampling was conducted over short distances. Discrete and composite samples were analyzed by both on-site colorimetric methods and standard laboratory protocols. Three locations were sampled at each of three installations and the results used to estimate the relative contributions of analytical error and sampling error to the total uncertainty. The major contaminant at seven of the nine sampling locations was TNT; results from the on-site colorimetric method were in excellent agreement with laboratory results using SW846 Method 8330. DNT and ammonium picrate were the contaminants present at the highest concentration in the other two locations. For four sampling locations, short-range concentration variations were modest and analyte distribution was sufficiently Gaussian to apply normal distribution statistics to fractionate the total error variances. For these four locations, analysis standard deviations were always much lower than the sampling standard deviations; total error was dominated by sampling error, whether characterization was done using on-site or laboratory analysis. The other five sampling locations had enormous short-range heterogeneity and sampling error overwhelmed analytical error. To improve the quality of site characterization data, emphasis should be placed on reducing sampling error by the use of composite sampling strategies. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites using composite sampling, in-field sample homogenization, and on-site analysis is an efficient method of producing data that are accurate and precise, and also representative of the area.
Descriptors : *EXPLOSIVES, *SOILS, *SAMPLING, *SOIL POLLUTION, *CONTAMINATION, *DNT, POSITION(LOCATION), UNCERTAINTY, LABORATORY TESTS, STRATEGY, SITES, STATISTICS, EFFICIENCY, SHORT RANGE(TIME), QUALITY, INSTALLATION, ERRORS, HETEROGENEITY, LABORATORIES, SHORT RANGE(DISTANCE), STANDARD DEVIATION, TNT, HOMOGENEITY, COLORIMETRY, NORMAL DISTRIBUTION, COLORIMETRIC ANALYSIS, AMMONIUM PICRATE.
Subject Categories : Soil Mechanics
Ammunition and Explosives
Solid Wastes Pollution and Control
Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE