Accession Number : ADA322739

Title :   Paraquat Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review.

Corporate Author : PATUXENT WILDLIFE RESEARCH CENTER LAUREL MD

Personal Author(s) : Eisler, Ronald

PDF Url : ADA322739

Report Date : AUG 1990

Pagination or Media Count : 35

Abstract : Pararaquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4-bipyridlnium) and its dichioride salt (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4-bipyridinium dichloride) are broad-spectrum contact plant killers and herbage desiccants that were introduced commercially during the past 25 years. Today, they rank among the most widely used herbicides globally and are frequently used in combination with other herbicides. The recommended paraquat field application rates for terrestrial weed control usually range between 0.28 and 1.12 kg/ha (0.25 and 1.0 lb/acre), and for aquatic weed control the range is 0.1-2.0 mg/L. Target plant species are unable to metabollze paraquat and tend to contain elevated residues; paraquat-resistant strains of terrestrial flora, whose numbers are increasing, require greater concentrations for control and may contain proportionately greater residues. Paraquat from decayed flora is usually adsorbed to soils and sediments. Paraquat in surface soils generally photoecomposes in several weeks, but paraquat in subsurface soils and sediments may remain bound-and biologically unavailable-for many years without significant degradation.

Descriptors :   *SOILS, *SALTS, *INVERTEBRATES, *PLANTS(BOTANY), *HERBICIDES, DEGRADATION, HAZARDS, ADSORPTION, TARGETS, EARTH(PLANET), WILDLIFE, SEDIMENTS, SUBSURFACE, RESIDUES, FISHES, DESICCANTS, AQUATIC WEEDS, WEED CONTROL.

Subject Categories : Biochemistry
      Biology
      Medicine and Medical Research
      Soil Mechanics

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE