Accession Number : ADA322822

Title :   Tin Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review.

Descriptive Note : Biological rept.,

Corporate Author : PATUXENT WILDLIFE RESEARCH CENTER LAUREL MD

Personal Author(s) : Eisler, Ron

PDF Url : ADA322822

Report Date : JAN 1989

Pagination or Media Count : 95

Abstract : Interest in the toxicity of tin compounds dates to the early 1800's when investigators demonstrated that inorganic tin compounds produced muscular weakness, loss of pain sensation, and immobility in dogs (Reiter and Ruppert 1984; Idemudia and McMillan 198Gb). In man, organotins can be assimilated by inhalation, absorption through the skin, and from food and drinking water (Zuckerman et al. 1978). The first documented case of organotin poisoning of humans was in 1880 when workers complained of headaches, general weakness, nausea, and diarrhea after exposure to triethyltin acetate vapors (Reiter and Ruppert 1984). Renewed interest in the toxicity of organotin compounds resulted from a medical tragedy in France in 1954. Stalinon, a proprietary compound of diethyltin diiodide plus linoic acid used to treat furuncles and other skin infections, caused 217 poisonings and 111 deaths (Piver 1973; Duncan 1980; Idemudia and McMillan 198Gb). The identified toxic components in Stalinon were triethyltin contaminants; victims received a total dose of 3 grams over a 6- to 8-week period. Symptoms included constant severe headache, rapid weight loss, vomiting, urine retention, vertigo, hypothermia, abdominal pain, and visual and psychic disturbances. Some of the more severely affected patients had convulsions. Death usually occurred in coma or from respiratory or cardiac failure. In survivors, headaches and diminished visual acuity remained for at least 4 years.

Descriptors :   *TOXIC HAZARDS, *TOXICITY, *TIN COMPOUNDS, *INVERTEBRATES, *WILDLIFE, *FISHES, *HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, HAZARDS, HUMANS, VAPORS, STRESS(PSYCHOLOGY), SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS, ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS, DRINKING WATER, DIARRHEA, FRANCE, TOXIC AGENTS, RESPIRATORY SYSTEM, POISONING, VISION, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, SURVIVAL(PERSONNEL), DEATH, RETENTION(PSYCHOLOGY), FOOD, WEIGHT REDUCTION, HYPOTHERMIA, HEART, SENSES(PHYSIOLOGY), ACETATES, INORGANIC COMPOUNDS, DOGS, URINE, VISUAL ACUITY, INHALATION, CONVULSIVE DISORDERS, HEADACHES, COMA(PHYSIOLOGY), NAUSEA, VERTIGO.

Subject Categories : Biology
      Medicine and Medical Research
      Toxicology
      Metallurgy and Metallography

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE