Accession Number : ADA325127

Title :   JIHAD -- The Invisible War: Are We Protecting Our Forces?

Descriptive Note : Final rept.,

Corporate Author : NAVAL WAR COLL NEWPORT RI

Personal Author(s) : Khan, Asad

PDF Url : ADA325127

Report Date : 07 FEB 1997

Pagination or Media Count : 22

Abstract : Since the Vietnam War, terrorism has caused more casualties to U.S. service members than military operations. Terrorism occurs in many different forms. This paper's focus is on the implications of acts of terrorism by Islamic fundamentalists against U.S. military operations. The 1993 Beirut and 1996 Dhahran bombings demonstrate the U.S. military's failure to include force protection as an essential element of operational analysis and planning. The U.S. is in the middle of a Jihad (holy war) waged by militant Islamic fundamentalists targeting those Arab governments that court the West. Understanding the aims of the Islamic fundamentalists is essential to successful military operations in the Middle East. The U.S. Central Command's assessments cited in this paper illustrate the importance for commanders to integrate regional geopolitical issues into operations. Recommendations to improve security for US military personnel include: creating a Joint Force Protection Center to provide operational support to commanders; establishing agreements with host nations to ensure robust force protection measures; training and assigning Force Protection Officers to operational units; and institutionalizing force protection doctrine into the curricula at all formal service schools for officers and enlisted personnel. Finally, force protection measures by themselves are only a deterrent. Commanders must employ forces that are least vulnerable to the threat of terrorism yet accomplish the mission. Commanders should consider the maximum employment of expeditionary forces in operations where the visibility of U.S. forces undermines host governments or promotes Islamic fundamentalism. Continuance of current practice is detrimental to the long-term U.S. security commitments and objectives in the region.

Descriptors :   *MILITARY OPERATIONS, *MILITARY PERSONNEL, *MILITARY COMMANDERS, *TERRORISM, WARFARE, SCHOOLS, EMPLOYMENT, ARABS, ENLISTED PERSONNEL, FAILURE, VISIBILITY, PROTECTION, CASUALTIES, OFFICER PERSONNEL, MILITARY PLANNING, VIETNAM, DOCTRINE, BOMBING.

Subject Categories : Personnel Management and Labor Relations
      Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE