Accession Number : ADA330313

Title :   Yaupon (Ilex vomitoria): Section 7.5.10, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

Descriptive Note : Final rept.,

Corporate Author : ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG MS ENVIRONMENTAL LAB

Personal Author(s) : Martin, Chester O. ; Mott, Sarah P.

PDF Url : ADA330313

Report Date : AUG 1997

Pagination or Media Count : 23

Abstract : Yanpon (ilex vomitoria) is an evergreen shrub or small tree that is common in the moist pine and hardwood forests of the south Atlantic-Gulf Coastal Plain and the savanna scrublands of east- central Texas. Ilex the largest genus of the family Aquifoliaceae, contains 14 species native to the United States (Harrar and Harrar 1962). Of the 6 holly species found in the southern United States, including American holly (L opaca), dahoon (L cassine), and possumhaw (I. decidua), yauipon is the most valuable to wildlife (Halls and Ripley 1961). Its thicket-forming characteristics make it excellent cover for many birds, and its fruits and foliage provide a year-round food source for white-tailed deer (Halls 1977). Yaupon has no commercial timber value, but its bright red ftuits and dark green foliage (often used for Christmas decorations) give it ornamental value as a landscaping plant (vines 1960). Dried yaupon leaves, which have a high caffeine content, were transitionally brewed by Native Americans in a bitter, medicinal tea called "black drink" or "cassine" (Wines 1960, Bailey and Bailey 1976). The long history of this tea (Spanish explorers recorded its use by east Texas natives in the early 1500's) originated several local names for yanpon, including emetic holly, south-sea tea, Carolina tea, Appalachian tea, Indian black drink, chocolato del Indio, and Yopan del Indio. Other common names for yaupon are evergreen holly, evergreen cassena, yapon, yopan, cassena, cassine, cassio-berry bush, and Christmas berry (Vines 1960).

Descriptors :   *TREES, *PLANTS(BOTANY), UNITED STATES, RED(COLOR), MEDICINE, DARKNESS, HISTORY, ENGINEERS, MANUAL OPERATION, ARMY, BIRDS, FOOD, WILDLIFE, TEXAS, SOUTH(DIRECTION), GREEN(COLOR), FOLIAGE, WOOD, FORESTS, CAFFEINE, FRUITS, HARDWOODS, EMETICS, TEA.

Subject Categories : Agronomy, Horticulture and Aquiculture
      Biology

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE