Accession Number : ADA330695

Title :   Snow Mechanics: Review of the State of Knowledge and Applications,

Corporate Author : COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LAB HANOVER NH

Personal Author(s) : Shapiro, Lewis H. ; Johnson, Jerome B. ; Sturm, Mathew ; Blaisdell, George L.

PDF Url : ADA330695

Report Date : AUG 1997

Pagination or Media Count : 40

Abstract : A review of snow mechanics indicates that, with the exception of avalanche studies, it is seldom used. In this report we give our interpretation of why this is the case, and suggest ways to help expand the range of problems to which snow mechanics can be applied. Until the late 1960s, most experimental work in snow mechanics was devoted to finding values of the parameters for equations of linear elasticity, viscosity, and viscoelasticity. In about 1970, work on that approach stopped and since then the emphasis has been on (1) the development of nonlinear theories to describe the deformation and fracture of snow, and (2) attempts to develop constitutive relationships based on the study of the microstructural aspects of snow deformation. We believe that the best hope of encouraging more applications for snow mechanics in the near term lies in improving and expanding the database on the response of snow to applied loads, and organizing it in a manner that makes it easy for potential users to determine the anticipated deformational behavior of snow in any particular application. To do this, we suggest developing a classification of snow based on physical properties and index parameters that give information about the bonding and microstructure. Mechanical properties, constitutive relations under various loading conditions, and other relevant information can then be associated with each class.

Descriptors :   *SNOW, PERMEABILITY, MICROSTRUCTURE, VISCOELASTICITY, MODULUS OF ELASTICITY, ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES, FRACTURE(MECHANICS), NONLINEAR SYSTEMS, CLASSIFICATION, ELASTIC WAVES.

Subject Categories : Snow, Ice and Permafrost

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE