Accession Number : ADA331205
Title : Vaccine Therapy,
Corporate Author : WALTER REED ARMY INST OF RESEARCH WASHINGTON DC
Personal Author(s) : Burke, Donald S.
PDF Url : ADA331205
Report Date : 1997
Pagination or Media Count : 17
Abstract : In modern usage, the word 'vaccine' is usually restricted to describe an immunogen administered to at-risk healthy subjects prior to their becoming exposed to a microbial pathogen. This word is also often used when the immunogen is administered early after exposure but before the onset of disease manifestations: in such circumstances the qualifying prefix 'post-exposure' is employed. Given the conventional use of the word 'vaccine' the term 'vaccine therapy' might seem to be an oxymoron. However, historical precedent suggests that the term 'vaccine therapy' should be used to describe administration of a microbe-specific antigen for therapeutic purposes (after the onset of established disease). Indeed, the terms 'vaccine therapy' or 'vaccinotherapy' have been used continuously for this purpose as Medical Subject Headings in the Index Medicus since 1911. While alternative terms have been proposed (immunoregulation, immunotherapy, immunostimulation) these terms are overly general and fail to convey the meaning that the immunity sought in vaccine therapy is both active and directed against microbe-specific antigens. Thus, vaccine usage can be categorized relative to the time of microbial exposure; (1) true prevention or prophylaxis, (2) post-exposure prophylaxis, and (3) therapy of reduction of recurrences. These different uses of vaccines are presented schematically in Figure 1. While there is no question of the clinical efficacy of vaccination before exposure, and reasonable proof for clinical efficacy of vaccination for post-exposure prophylaxis, there is at present no uncontested evidence for clinical efficacy of vaccination for therapy or reduction of recurrences in any oven human disease. Nonetheless, the concept that the immune response might be accessible to medical intervention is an appealing one.
Descriptors : *CLINICAL MEDICINE, *EXPOSURE(PHYSIOLOGY), *SUBJECT INDEXING, *VACCINES, *INDEX TERMS, HUMANS, DISEASES, REDUCTION, MEDICINE, THERAPY, WORDS(LANGUAGE), RESPONSE(BIOLOGY), IMMUNITY, INTERVENTION, IMMUNIZATION, PREVENTIVE MEDICINE, MICROORGANISMS, OVENS, IMMUNOGENS.
Subject Categories : Information Science
Medicine and Medical Research
Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE