Accession Number : ADA953592
Title : Teaching Machines and Their Applications. Supplement,
Corporate Author : NORWEGIAN DEFENCE RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT OSLO
Personal Author(s) : Filby, Y.
Report Date : 1961
Pagination or Media Count : 57
Abstract : Many kinds of teaching machines have been designed and are commercially available. It is probable that even more will become available in the near future. This substantial sign of confidence in the future of automated teaching by commercial enterprises is encouraging in itself; however, in view of the fluidity of the automated-teaching situation and lack of clear-cut empirical data on most of the issues, the teaching machines which exist today may easily become obsolete in a short time. Also, it should be kept in mind that the actual mechanisms by which automated instructional material is presented to the learner is of secondary importance. In marked contrast to the considerable number of teaching machines now available on the market, there is a paucity of commercially available, programmed instructional material. This is so because programs are relatively costly and time-consuming to develop. In developing a program, two kinds of professional services are required: (1) that of an automated-teaching specialist; and (2) that of a subject-matter expert. An impression of the rapidly spreading automated-teaching activities in schools of all levels - special schools, pre-schools, elementary schools, high schools, and colleges - may be gained from the list at the end of Chapter 3, which is not exhaustive. There has been an independent evolution of teaching devices developed by psychologists in the Armed Forces, pre-dating Skinner's teaching-machine movement. Some of these devices meet the criteria for inclusion within the category of teaching machines. However, most of these are not considered to be teaching machines, since they emphasize the training of motor skills rather than intellectual skills.
Descriptors : *TEACHING MACHINES, *PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION, *MILITARY APPLICATIONS, LEARNING, CONDITIONING(LEARNING), FEEDBACK, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, SCHOOLS, MILITARY TRAINING, TRAINING DEVICES, PSYCHOLOGISTS, NORWAY.
Subject Categories : Humanities and History
Computer Programming and Software
Human Factors Engineering & Man Machine System
Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE