Accession Number : ADP002033

Title :   Development of Operational Snowmelt Forecasting Model for Very Large Watersheds in Himalayas,

Corporate Author : NATIONAL REMOTE SENSING AGENCY SECUNDERABAD (INDIA)

Personal Author(s) : Ramamoorthi,A. S. ; Subba Rao,P.

Report Date : JUN 1982

Pagination or Media Count : 8

Abstract : During the summer months some of the major multipurpose reservoirs in North India critically depend on the snowmelt runoff for power generation, irrigation and drinking water supply. Snow covered watersheds of perennial rivers of India are very large varying from about 2000 sq.miles to about 15,000 sq.miles. They are situated at very high altitudes above 8,000 feet. They are not easily accessible and are hazardous; therefore practically no data is available about the snowfall conditions, temperature etc. The snow depths are vary very widely from a few inches to many feet within short distances. Determining water equivalent is a very formidable task considering the heterogeneous nature of the snowcover in Himalayas. If the expected seasonal or fortnightly runoff could be forecast well in time before the onset of snowmelt season, it would be of immense value to water resources project managers to plan in advance the operation of the reservoirs for achieving optimum utilisation of the scarce summer flows. This paper describes in detail the development of a model that has been evolved for the data-scarce very large watersheds in the Himalayas, with snow cover area (SCA) derived from NOAA imageries as the main input, and used successfully for predicting the snowmelt flows of river Sutlej in the years 1980 and 1981.

Descriptors :   *SNOW, WATERSHEDS, INDIA, MOUNTAINS, MELTING, RUNOFF, RIVERS, WATER FLOW, FORECASTING, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY, METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITES

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE