Accession Number : ADP006366

Title :   Household Exposure Models,

Corporate Author : LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LAB CA

Personal Author(s) : McKone, Thomas E.

Report Date : JUL 1990

Pagination or Media Count : 21

Abstract : Human exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in tap water is often assumed to be dominated by ingestion of drinking water. This paper addresses the relative importance of inhalation and dermal exposures in a typical household. A three-compartment model is used to simulate the 24-h concentration history of VOCs in the shower, bathroom, and remaining household volumes as a result of tap water use. Mass transfers from water to air are derived from measured data for radon and used to estimate mass-transfer properties for VOCs. The model is used to calculate a range of concentrations and human exposures in U.S. dwellings. The estimated ratio of household-inhalation uptake to ingestion uptake is in the range of 1 to 6 for VOCs. A dermal absorption model is used to assess exposure across the skin boundary during baths and showers. The ratio of dermal exposure to ingestion exposure is in the range 0.6 to 1.

Descriptors :   *ORGANIC COMPOUNDS, *EXPOSURE(PHYSIOLOGY), *INDOOR AIR POLLUTION, *CONTAMINANTS, ABSORPTION, AIR, BATHS, DRINKING WATER, ESTIMATES, HOUSING(DWELLINGS), INGESTION(PHYSIOLOGY), INHALATION, MASS TRANSFER, MODELS, SYMPOSIA.

Subject Categories : Toxicology
      Environmental Health and Safety
      Air Pollution and Control

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE